Category: First aid blog

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What are the four different types of shock?

Shock is the term used to describe the condition of a casualty when the oxygen supply to the tissues is inadequate to meet the needs of the body. First aiders and first responders should...

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Anatomy for first aiders: the respiratory system

The respiratory system can be divided into two sections: upper and lower. The upper respiratory system includes the nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx (throat) and larynx (voice box). The throat is a common passageway...

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Emergency scene management for first aiders

Emergency scene management is a vital skill for all first aiders and first responders. So what does emergency scene management mean and how does it work? The safety of rescuers is the first priority...

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What are Universal Infection Control Precautions?

Universal precautions (also commonly called standard precautions) are the basis of an approach to infection control which treats all human blood and materials as potentially infectious, and include: engineering controls administrative controls which include workplace...

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How to calculate an Apgar score

The Apgar score is a standardised way of checking the health of a newborn baby. It was named after its creator, Dr Virginia Apgar, Professor of Anesthesiology at Columbia University in the USA, who died...

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First aid for a subconjunctival hemorrhage

A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a bleed beneath the surface of the eye (known as the conjunctiva). The most common cause is a burst blood vessel underlying the conjunctiva.  The blood vessels which supply the...

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How to use an Oropharyngeal (OP) Airway

Oropharyngeal (OP) airways are curved plastic devices that assist in the maintenance of an adequate airway in the unresponsive casualty. The OP airway by itself does not replace correct airway management practices and should...

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First aid for Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder otherwise known as manic depressive disorder is a mental health illness where patients experience periods of extreme elation or mania and periods of depression hence the term ‘bipolar’. It effects approximately 1/100...

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What does OPQRST stand for in first aid?

OPQRST is an mnemonic used by first aiders and healthcare professionals to assess a patient’s pain. Many medical emergencies result in pain so being able to take an accurate pain history is important for...

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First aid for Dementia

According to the World Health Organisation, approximately 47.5 million people world wide suffer from Dementia. This number is set to sky rocket with the increasing elderly population. The term ‘dementia’ encompasses a group of...

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How to talk someone out of an anxiety attack

Anxiety attacks are surprisingly common and occur most frequently in women. They can be caused by a variety of things that are specific to that individual e.g. fear of going outside or news that...

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What factors can affect blood pressure?

Blood pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is highest in the large arteries leaving the heart. It is measured in millimetres of mercury...