Category: First aid blog

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What are the two types of heat stroke?

Heat stroke occurs from the sudden loss of the body’s ability to control its core temperature. Heat stroke is a medical emergency which first aiders should be able to recognise and summon early advanced...

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Anatomy for first aiders: the spinal cord

In this blog post we discuss the anatomy of the spinal cord for first aiders and first responders.  The spinal cord is a collection of nerve fibres connecting the brain to nerves which pass...

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A guide to pain assessment and management

Pain is a complex phenomenon, a sensation ranging from mild discomfort to agony. The sensation of pain may be localised or systemic (widespread) and is subjective (varies from person to person). It is caused...

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How to Recognise Hypovolemic Shock

Hypovolemic shock occurs as a result of fluid loss from the circulatory system. This can be due to: Blood loss from external or internal bleeding Fluid loss with burns Fluid loss with severe vomiting...

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What are the four different types of shock?

Shock is the term used to describe the condition of a casualty when the oxygen supply to the tissues is inadequate to meet the needs of the body. First aiders and first responders should...

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Anatomy for first aiders: the respiratory system

The respiratory system can be divided into two sections: upper and lower. The upper respiratory system includes the nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx (throat) and larynx (voice box). The throat is a common passageway...

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Emergency scene management for first aiders

Emergency scene management is a vital skill for all first aiders and first responders. So what does emergency scene management mean and how does it work? The safety of rescuers is the first priority...

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What are Universal Infection Control Precautions?

Universal precautions (also commonly called standard precautions) are the basis of an approach to infection control which treats all human blood and materials as potentially infectious, and include: engineering controls administrative controls which include workplace...

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How to calculate an Apgar score

The Apgar score is a standardised way of checking the health of a newborn baby. It was named after its creator, Dr Virginia Apgar, Professor of Anesthesiology at Columbia University in the USA, who died...

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First aid for a subconjunctival hemorrhage

A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a bleed beneath the surface of the eye (known as the conjunctiva). The most common cause is a burst blood vessel underlying the conjunctiva.  The blood vessels which supply the...

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How to use an Oropharyngeal (OP) Airway

Oropharyngeal (OP) airways are curved plastic devices that assist in the maintenance of an adequate airway in the unresponsive casualty. The OP airway by itself does not replace correct airway management practices and should...